- A 6x4 Tipper truck.
- Has loading capacity of 25-Ton.
- COmes in chassis with built cabin & tipper body.
- Used for carrying sand cement, coke.
Purpose of the vehicle.
Axles are an integral component of a wheeled vehicle. In a live-axle suspension system, the axles serve to transmit driving torque to the wheel, as well as to maintain the position of the wheels relative to each other and to the vehicle body. The axles in this system must also bear the weight of the vehicle plus any cargo. A non-driving axle, such as the front beam axle in Heavy duty trucks and some 2 wheel drive light trucks and vans, will have no shaft. It serves only as a suspension and steering component. Conversely, many front wheel drive cars have a solid rear beam axle.
In other types of suspension systems, the axles serve only to transmit driving torque to the wheels; The position and angle of the wheel hubs is a function of the suspension system. This is typical of the independent suspension found on most newer cars and SUV's, and on the front of many light trucks. These systems still have a differential, but it will not have attached axle housing tubes. It may be attached to the vehicle frame or body, or integral in a transaxle. The axle shafts (usually C.V. type) then transmit driving torque to the wheels. Like a full floating axle system, the shafts in an independent suspension system do not support any vehicle weight.
"Axle" in reference to a vehicle also has a more ambiguous definition, meaning parallel wheels on opposing sides of the vehicle, regardless of their mechanical connection type to each other and the vehicle frame or body.
A straight axle is a single rigid shaft connecting a wheel on the left side of the vehicle to a wheel on the right side. The axis of rotation fixed by the axle is common to both wheels. Such a design can keep the wheel positions steady under heavy stress, and can therefore support heavy loads. Straight axles are used on trains, for the rear axles of commercial trucks, and on heavy duty off-road vehicles. The axle can be protected and further reinforced by enclosing the length of the axle in a housing.
In split-axle designs, the wheel on each side is attached to a separate shaft. Modern passenger cars have split drive axles. In some designs, this allows independent suspension of the left and right wheels, and therefore a smoother ride. Even when the suspension is not independent, split axles permit the use of a differential, allowing the left and right drive wheels to be driven at different speeds as the automobile turns, improving traction and extending tire life.
A tandem axle is a group of two or more axles situated close together. Truck designs will use such a configuration to provide a greater weight capacity than a single axle. Semi trailers usually have a tandem axle at the rear.
Ancalled a drive axle.
Modern front wheel drive cars typically combine the transmission and front axle into a single unit called a transaxle. The drive axle is a split axle with a differential and universal joints between the two half axles. Each half axle connects to the wheel by use of a constant velocity (CV) joint which allows the wheel assembly to move freely vertically as well as to pivot when making turns.
In rear wheel drive cars and trucks, the engine turns a driveshaft which transmits rotational force to a drive axle at the rear of the vehicle. The drive axle may be a live axle, but modern automobiles generally use a split axle with a differential.
Some simple vehicle designs, such as lesiure go-karts, may have a single driven wheel where the drive axle is a split axle with only one of the two shafts driven by the engine, or else have both wheels connected to one shaft without a differential (kart racing).
Dead axles/lazy axles
A dead axle, also called lazy axle, is not part of the drivetrain but is instead free-rotating. The rear axle of a front-wheel drive car may be considered a dead axle. Many trucks and trailers use dead axles for strictly load-bearing purposes. A dead axle located immediately in front of a drive axle is called a pusher axle. A tag axle is a dead axle situated behind a drive axle. On some vehicles (such as motorcoaches), the tag axle may be steerable.
Some dump trucks and trailers are configured with lift axles (also known as airlift axles or drop axles), which may be mechanically raised or lowered. The axle is lowered to increase the weight capacity, or to distribute the weight of the cargo over more wheels, for example to cross a weight restricted bridge. When not needed, the axle is lifted off the ground to save wear on the tires and axle and to increase traction in the remaining wheels. Lifting an axle also alleviates lateral scrubbing of the additional axle in very tight turns, allowing the vehicle to turn more readily. In some situations removal of pressure from the additional axle is necessary for the vehicle to complete a turn at all.
Several manufacturers offer computer-controlled airlift, so that the dead axles are automatically lowered when the main axle reaches its weight limit. The dead axles can still be lifted by the press of a button if needed.
Full-floating vs semi-floating
The full-floating design is typically used in most 3/4 and 1-ton light trucks, medium duty trucks and heavy-duty trucks, as well as most agricultural applications, such as large tractors and combines. There are a few exceptions, such as many Land-Rover vehicles. A full-floating axle can be identified by a protruding hub to which the axle shaft flange is bolted. These axles can carry more weight than a semi-floating or non-floating axle assembly because the hubs have two bearings riding on a fixed spindle. The axle shafts themselves do not carry any weight; they serve only to transmit torque from the differential to the wheels. Full-floating axle shafts are retained by the aforementioned flange bolted to the hub, while the hub and bearings are retained on the spindle by a large nut.
The semi-floating design carry the weight of the vehicle on the axle shaft itself; there is a single bearing at the end of the axle housing that carries the load from the axle and that the axle rotates through. This design is found under most 1/2 ton and lighter trucks and SUV's.
Body built options.
Popularity of the Brand.
Type of Cabin.
- Non AC Sleeper Cabin
Type of Chassis.
Bharat stage emission standards are emission standards instituted by the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles. The standards and the timeline for implementation are set by the Central Pollution Control Board under the Ministry of Environment & Forests.
The standards, based on European regulations were first introduced in 2000. Progressively stringent norms have been rolled out since then. All new vehicles manufactured after the implementation of the norms have to be compliant with the regulations.Since October 2010, Bharat stage III norms have been enforced across the country. In 13 major cities, Bharat stage IV emission norms are in place since April 2010.
While the norms help in bringing down pollution levels, it invariably results in increased vehicle cost due to the improved technology & higher fuel prices. However, this increase in private cost is offset by savings in health costs for the public, as there is lesser amount of disease causing particulate matter and pollution in the air.
Emission standards for new heavy-duty diesel engines—applicable to vehicles of GVW > 3,500 kg—are listed below
|2000||Euro I||ECE R49||4.5||1.1||8.0||0.36*|
|2005†||Euro II||ECE R49||4.0||1.1||7.0||0.15|
|* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 ‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1
European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU member states. The emission standards are defined in a series of European Union directives staging the progressive introduction of increasingly stringent standards.
Currently, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbon (THC), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) are regulated for most vehicle types, including cars, lorries, trains, tractors and similar machinery, barges, but excluding seagoing ships and aeroplanes. For each vehicle type, different standards apply. Compliance is determined by running the engine at a standardised test cycle. Non-compliant vehicles cannot be sold in the EU, but new standards do not apply to vehicles already on the roads. No use of specific technologies is mandated to meet the standards, though available technology is considered when setting the standards. New models introduced must meet current or planned standards, but minor lifecycle model revisions may continue to be offered with pre-compliant engines.
In the early 2000s, Australia began harmonising Australian Design Rule certification for new motor vehicle emissions with Euro categories. Euro III was introduced on 1 January 2006 and is progressively being introduced to align with European introduction dates.
The official category name is heavy-duty diesel engines, which generally includes lorries and buses.
EU Emission Standards for HD Diesel Engines, g/kWh (smoke in m−1)
|Euro I||1992, < 85 kW||
|1992, > 85 kW||4.5||1.1||8.0||0.36|
|Euro II||October 1996||4.0||1.1||7.0||0.25|
|Euro III||October 1999 EEVs only||ESC & ELR||1.0||0.25||2.0||0.02||0.15|
ESC & ELR
|Euro IV||October 2005||1.5||0.46||3.5||0.02||0.5|
|Euro V||October 2008||1.5||0.46||2.0||0.02||0.5|
|Euro VI||31. December 2013||1.5||0.13||0.4||0.01|
|* for engines of less than 0.75 dm³ swept volume per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3,000 per minute. EEV is "Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle".|
Emission standards for Large Goods Vehicles
|Standard||Date||CO (g/kWh)||NOx (g/kWh)||HC (g/kWh)||PM (g/kWh)|
|Standard||Date||CO (g/kWh)||NOx (g/kWh)||HC (g/kWh)||PM (g/kWh)|
Type, Number of Cylinders, Displacement
Maximum Fuel the truck's fuel tank can hold (in Litres)
The gross vehicle weight rating (also gross vehicle mass, GVWR, GVM) is the maximum operating weight/mass of a vehicle as specified by the manufacturer including the vehicle's chassis, body, engine, engine fluids, fuel, accessories, driver, passengers and cargo but excluding that of any trailers. The term is used for motor vehicles and trains.
Other measures include Gross combined weight rating (Gross combination mass) which is used total mass of the motor vehicle including all trailers; curb weight which the weight without occupants or cargo and the dry weight is used for the mass without occupants, cargo or consumables such as fuel and oil. The gross trailer weight rating specifies the maximum weight of a trailer and gross axle weight rating specifies the maximum weight on any particular axle.
Maximum Power of the vehicle.
Maximum Speed of the vehicle at Top gear.
Total number of forwrd gears used for driving the vehicle.
After sales support provided by the manufacturer.
Type of steering.
Our Rating for the vehicle.
Type of Tipper body.
Capacity of the Tipper body to hold cargo (in Cu.M).
Type of Tipper depending on positon like under-body.
Distance between the front and rear axles.
* To calculate a detailed EMI, visit our dedicated Estimator Page. This is an estimate, actual rates may vary